Workshop of CFA and SEM

Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling

Download .zip SEM


Get a Relatively Good Model

Construct a Model in Amos

Don't try to memorize the process. It's pointless:

Model Fit


CMIN --- CMIN/DF: < 3 (good); < 5 (OK)
CMIN --- P: > .05
RMR,GFI --- GFI: >.95
RMR,GFI --- AGFI: >.80
Baseline Comparison --- CFI: >.95 (good); > .90 (OK); > .80 (barely OK)
Parsimony-Adjusted Measure --- PCFI: >.80
RMSEA --- RMSEA: <.05 (good); >.05 && <.10 (OK); >.10 (barely OK)
RMSEA --- PCLOSE: >.05

CMIN/DF and P-value together tell you whether you model has a good fit; if the result is not within the range of metrics while you have a big number of sample, it is OK.


Remove some variables with low loadings.

Go to Modification Indices >>> Covariances and look for big number of M.I. between each pair of errors. Covariate ONLY those pair of errors on the same factor.

Go to Estimates >>> Matrices >>> Standard Residue Covariances and look for big numbers above or close to 2.58. Remove the variable that causes problems.

Model Test

Validity and Reliability

Download The Tool

Metrics (for every factor):

CR > .70
AVE > .50

If you have convergent validity issues, then your variables do not correlate well with each other within their parent factor. Stop using CFA.

Optional Tests

  1. Common Method Bias
  2. Measurement Model Invariance

For more information, please see Dr. Gaskin's website.